Behind Wilderness explores the uncomfortable history of Canada’s wilderness industry and the costs of manufacturing the last of the “great outdoors”. Many of the stories depicted are about the struggles and atrocities faced by the indigenous peoples of Canada and other minority groups throughout history. Others are about the environmental costs of human-centric practices. Some of these cases are well-known, while many are overlooked in our collective preconceptions of Canadian history. To find out more, sources for each image are listed below.
Image 1 “Park Prisoners” | Jasper highways were constructed by Japanese forced labour during wartime.
“Japanese Canadian Internment: Prisoners in their own Country”. The Canadian Encyclopedia. 2012. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/japanese-internment-banished-and-beyond-tears-feature
Waiser, Bill. Park Prisoners: the untold story of Western Canada's national parks, 1915-1946. Fifth House Publications, 1999.
Image 2 “Uprooted” | Acadians were evicted from their homes to create nature reserves in Kouchibouguac Park.
Rudin, Ronald. Kouchibouguac: Removal, Resistance, and Remembrance at a Canadian National Park. University of Toronto Press, 2016. Google Books,
Image 3 Wildfire | Forests everywhere are running out of time due to wildfires caused by climate change.
Struzik, Edward. Firestorm: How Wildfire Will Shape Our Future. Island Press, Oct 5 2017. https://books.google.ca/books?id=sd4yDwAAQBAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s Accessed 30 Jan 2019.
“Time to Press the Reset Button on Canada’s National Parks”. The Weather Network. Jun 16 2018. https://www.theweathernetwork.com/news/articles/the-conversation-jasper-british-colum bia-hiking-canada-national-parks-wilderness-endangered/104739.
“Wildfire in Kootenay National Park Continues to Grow”. CBC News. Aug 8 2018. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/calgary/kootenay-national-park-fire-growing-1.4778703
“California’s wildfires are hardly “natural” — humans made them worse at every step.” Vox. Nov 19 2018. https://www.vox.com/2018/8/7/17661096/california-wildfires-2018-camp-woolsey-climate-change
Image 4 “Roadkill” | Tourist traffic in national parks puts wildlife at risk.
“Wildlife crossings stop roadkill. Why aren't there more?” Vox. Jul 03 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ND0D3bVbM7Y
“Grizzly Bears in Jasper.” University of Washington, n.d. http://www.washington.edu/conservationbiology/research-programs/grizzly-bears-in-jasper/.
Image 5 Residential Schools | Stoney Nakoda children were removed from their families in the Rockies and subjected to abuse in residential schools.
“Namwayut: we are all one. Truth and reconciliation in Canada | Canada is ...” CBC. 18 Dec 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2zuRQmwaREY&t=28s
“One in five children suffered sexual abuse at residential schools, figures indicate”. Globe and Mail. Jan 17, 2009. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/one-in-five-students-suffered-sexual-abuse-at-residential-schools-figures-indicate/article20440061/
Snow, John. These Mountains are Our Sacred Places. Fifth House, 2005. https://books.google.ca/books/about/These_Mountains_are_Our_Sacred_Places.html?id=zO6WPwAACAAJ&source=kp_book_description&redir_esc=y
“Stolen Lives: The Indigenous Peoples of Canada and the Indian Residential Schools.”. Facing History. N.d. https://www.facinghistory.org/stolen-lives-indigenous-peoples-canada-and-indian-residential-schools/chapter-4/punishment-and-abuse
Image 6 “Undesirables” | Homes of Ojibway families were torched by national park authorities in Riding Mountain Park.
“Sharing Our Histories: The Keeseekoowenin Ojibway. Riding Mountain National Park”. Parks Canada. 27 Feb 2013. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=05eIN02x26Q&list=LLb-qAm5LApLfkkCy6EnQIfQ.
Sandlos, John. “Not Wanted in the Boundary: The Expulsion of the Keeseekoowenin Ojibway Band from Riding Mountain National Park” The Canadian Historical Review. vol 89, no 2, 2017. University of Toronto Press. http://muse.jhu.edu/article/242313
Image 7 “Birdwatching” | Flocks of birdwatchers in Point Pelee make bird sanctuaries uninhabitable for wildlife.
“Proposed multi-species action plan for Point Pelee National Park and Niagara National Historic Sites.” Parks Canada. March 29 2016.
“Bird watching.” Parks Canada. May 1 2017. https://www.pc.gc.ca/en/pn-np/on/pelee/activ/oiseaux-birds
Brancaccio, Nick. “Photos: Bird watching at Point Pelee National Park” The Windsor Star. May 22, 2017. https://windsorstar.com/news/local-news/photos-birders-flock-to-point-pelee
“When birdwatchers go bad: how the rise of 'wildlife paparazzi' has led to 'hide rage'” The Telegraph. Jun 11 2011.
“Point Pelee National Park”. The Canadian Encyclopedia. April 8 2009. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/point-pelee-national-park
Fletcher, Marla. “A Point Worth Protecting.” Legion Magazine. Sep 1 1997. https://legionmagazine.com/en/1997/09/a-point-worth-protecting/
Warner, Rosalind. National Parks and the Challenge of Ethical Governance: Conservation or Preservation? Canadian Political Science Association, 2006. www.cpsa-acsp.ca/papers-2006/Warner.pdf.
Image 8 “Pandemic” | Clear-cutting and fire suppression tactics has allowed forests to be destroyed by pine beetles.
Katz, Cheryl. “Small Pests, Big Problems: The Global Spread of Bark Beetles.” Yale Environment 360. Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. 21 Sept 2017. https://e360.yale.edu/features/small-pests-big-problems-the-global-spread-of-bark-beetles
Nikiforuk, Andrew. Empire of the Beetle: How Human Folly and a Tiny Bug are Killing North America’s Great Forests. Greystone Books, David Suzuki Foundation, 21 June 2011.
Robbins, Jim. “Bark Beetles Kill Millions of Acres of Trees in West.” The New York Times. 17 Nov 2008. https://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/18/science/18trees.html
“This Tiny Beetle is Devastating Forests in the Worst Outbreak Ever.” National Geographic. 17 Mar 2018. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/video/shorts/1187972675527/
Image 9 Trout Stocking | Trout stocking to boost recreational fishing destroyed lake ecosystems in Banff.
“History of fish stocking in Banff National Park”. Parks Canada. 31 Mar 2017.https://www.pc.gc.ca/en/pn-np/ab/banff/info/gestion-management/enviro/aqua/ensemencement-stocking
Schindler, David W. “Aquatic Problems Caused by Human Activities in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada.” AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 29. 1 Nov 2000. https://bioone.org/journals/ambio-a-journal-of-the-human-environment/volume-29/issue-7/0044-7447-29.7.401/Aquatic-Problems-Caused-by-Human-Activities-in-Banff-National-Park/10.1579/0044-7447-29.7.401.short
Thompson, Douglas M. “The Cost of Trout Fishing”. The New York Times. 10 April 2015. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/11/opinion/the-cost-of-trout-fishing.html
Image 10 “Out of Reach” | Caribou hunting bans in Canada’s north remove the Inuit’s primary food source.
“Canada’s Controversial Seal Hunt.” Munchies. July 16 2017. Vice Media. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mc2t-QJvCGo.
“Hunting Caribou in the Fall.” Hunter Education. Nunavut Arctic College Media. 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hI6ryY-eVmY
“Tuttunnaiq Caribou Hunt.” U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 16 Jun 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1v5YhdebtAw.
Martin, Brad. “Inuit Internationalism and the Establishment of Northern Yukon National Park.” Civilizing Nature: National Parks in Global Historical Perspective, edited by Bernhard
Gissibl, Sabine Hohler, and Patric Kupper, Berghahn Books, 2012. pp. 158-168. Google Books. https://books.google.ca/books?isbn=0857455257.
Parlee, Brenda, and Ken Caine. When the Caribou Do Not Come: Indigenous Knowledge and Adaptive Management in the Western Arctic. UBC Press, 2018.
Sandlos, John. Hunters at the Margin: Native People and Wildlife Conservation in the Northwest Territories. UBC Press, 2011. https://books.google.ca/books?id=k5uxIDp_OMoC&dq=canada+National+Park+history&source=gbs_navlinks_s.